Hydration resources

Here you will find links to independent documents, websites, videos and other resources on the topic of hydration, sweat testing and electrolyte management that may be useful or interesting.

Please note that Precision Hydration Ltd is not responsible or in direct control of the information contained within these documents or links.

Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males

Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males’ This article looks at the differences in sweat sodium concentrations taken from different body parts and shows a strong correlation between total body sweat sodium and that collected on the forearm.

The Math of Salt Loss

A well informed article about the rate of sodium loss in Ironman triathletes by Dr Jonathan Toker.

Electrolyte Replacement Supplements

An excellent article from the Australian Institute of sport.

Report of the Scientific Committee on Food on composition and specification of food intended to meet the expenditure of intense muscular effort, especially for sportsmen

Includes the conclusion that ‘The only electrolyte added to drinks consumed during exercise that is known to confer physiological benefit is sodium.’

Sports Drinks and Recovery Drinks

A review of the composition and roles of different types of sports drinks by Dr Stan Reents.

Sodium-facilitated hypervolemia, endurance performance, and thermoregulation

A 2005 study showing significant performance increase in cyclists using sodium loading pre-exercise.

Effects of an Electrolyte Additive on Hydration and Drinking Behavior During Wildfire Suppression

An interesting study that showed increased fluid absorption and decreased fluid intake in fireman using electrolyte replacement drinks vs water during heat exposure.

Sodium Keeps your mind sharp

An interesting review of some recent research that suggests sodium supplementation has significant cognitive as well as physical benefits for athletes. By Monique Ryan on VeloNews.

Salt use in Ironman athletes - some notes

Notes about Electrolyte replacement for Ironman athletes from an Australian coaching company

Sodium. A closer look

By Dr Alex McDonald. Medic and professional triathlete that covers the major reasons why sodium is such a critical electrolyte for athletes and how losses vary between people.

Variability in the sweating rate and sweat sodium concentration of ultra-endurance triathetes during exercise

Poster presentation that displays large variation in sweat sodium loss between ultra endurance athletes.

Cramping in Summer Sports: The Sodium Solution

A Gatorade article about managing sodium supplementation for athletes and it’s role in preventing muscle cramps.

Sodium intake for athletes

An article about how athletes can and should replace sodium before during and after activity.

Stay on top of your fluid game

By Kim Mueller. Includes data describing the huge difference between her hourly sodium needs and those of elite triathlete Chris Legh based on testing done by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute.

Water death after radio-station contest spurs homicide investigation

Article in Seattle Times reporting the death of a radio competition contestant who died from Hyponatraemia after drinking too much water.

Armstrong Urine colour reference chart

To be used to monitor hydration status based on the colour of your urine.

Sweat rate and sodium loss during work in the heat

An article that examines the difference in sweat volume and sodium loss in manual workers in different environments.

An Ultracyclist with Pulmonary Edema during the Bicycle Race Across America

The pitfalls of using a very aggressive sodium loading regime during a long endurance event

 Sodium pre-loading for pre-event hydration

A study looking at the effects of sodium content on pre-exercise hydration status, urine output and gastric upset